What materials were used to build the hoover dam
Hoover Dam. The Story of Hoover Dam - Essays. Concrete. Concrete consists of four ingredients-sand and crushed rock aggregate, water and Portland cement. These must be mixed in the proper proportions to yield strong concrete. Aggregate is perhaps the most important of the materials in the concrete because it makes up as much as three quarters of the Dam's mass. Hoover Dam would be the highest dam in the world, far taller than anything they had built so far. The lake it created would be the largest in the world. The proposed dam would be so tall and the pressure of the water it held back so great that many people were worried.
It was constructed between and during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30,by President Franklin D. Its construction was the result of a what materials were used to build the hoover dam effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives.
Originally known as Boulder Dam fromit was officially renamed Hoover Dam for President Herbert Hoover by a joint resolution of Congress in Since aboutthe Black Canyon and nearby Boulder How to get the best deals on cruises had been investigated for their potential to support a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power.
InCongress authorized the project. The winning bid to build the dam was submitted by a consortium called Six Companies, Inc. Such a large concrete structure had never been built before, and some of the techniques were unproven. The torrid summer weather and lack of facilities near the site also presented difficulties. Nevertheless, Six Mateirals turned the dam over to the federal government on March 1,more than two years ahead of schedule.
Hoover Dam impounds Lake Meadthe largest reservoir in the United States by volume when it is full. The dam's generators provide power for public and private utilities in Nevada, Arizona, and California. Hoover Dam is a major tourist attraction; nearly a million people tour the dam each year. The heavily traveled U. As the United States developed the Southwest, the Colorado River was seen as a potential source of irrigation uwed.
An initial bjild at diverting the river for irrigation purposes occurred in the late s, when land speculator William Beatty built the Alamo Canal just north of the Mexican border; the canal dipped into Mexico before running to a desolate area Beatty named the Imperial Valley. Even after the waterway was stabilized, it proved unsatisfactory because of constant disputes with landowners on the Mexican side of the border.
As the technology of electric power transmission improved, the Lower Colorado was considered for its hydroelectric -power potential. Inthr Edison Electric Company of Los Angeles surveyed the river in the hope of building a foot 12 m rock dam which could generate 10, horsepower 7, kW. However, at the time, the limit of transmission of electric power was 80 miles kmand there were few customers mostly mines within that limit.
Edison allowed land options it held on the river to lapse—including an option for what became the site of Hoover Dam. Service chief Arthur Powell Davis proposed using dynamite to collapse the walls of Boulder Canyon,  20 miles 32 km north of the eventual dam site, into the river.
Inafter considering it for several years, the Reclamation Service finally rejected the proposal, citing doubts about the unproven technique and questions as to whether it would, in fact, save money. Inthe Reclamation Service presented a report calling for the development of a dam on the Colorado River hoiver flood control and electric power generation.
The Fall-Davis report cited use of the Colorado River as a federal how to cook pork loin center chops because the river's basin covered several states, and the river eventually entered Mexico. The Service investigated Black Canyon and found it ideal; a railway could be laid from the railhead in Las Vegas to the top eere the dam site. With little guidance on water allocation from the Supreme Courtproponents of the dam feared endless litigation.
Delph Carpenter, a Colorado attorney, proposed that the seven states which fell within the river's basin California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming form an interstate compactwith the approval of Congress. Inrepresentatives of seven states met with then- Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.
Colorado decision undermining the claims of the upstream states, they became anxious to reach an agreement. The resulting Colorado River Compact was signed on November 24, Legislation to authorize the dam was introduced repeatedly by two California Wers, What materials were used to build the hoover dam Phil Swing and Senator Hiram Johnsonbut representatives from other parts of the country considered the project as hugely expensive and one that would mostly benefit California.
The Mississippi flood wht Midwestern and Southern congressmen and senators more sympathetic toward the dam project. On March 12,the failure of the St. Francis Damconstructed by the city of Los Angeles, caused a disastrous flood that killed up to people. As that magerials was a curved-gravity type,  similar in design to the arch-gravity as was proposed for the Black Canyon dam, opponents claimed that the Black Canyon dam's safety could not be guaranteed.
Congress authorized a board of engineers to review plans for the proposed dam. The Colorado River Board found the project feasible, but warned that should the dam fail, every downstream Colorado River community would be destroyed, and that the river might change course and empty into the Salton Sea. The Board cautioned: "To avoid such possibilities, the proposed dam should be constructed on conservative if not ultra-conservative lines.
Ghe December 21,President Coolidge signed the bill authorizing the dam. This occurred on March 6,with Utah's ratification; Arizona did not approve it until Even before Congress approved the Boulder Canyon Project, the Bureau of Reclamation was considering what kind of dam should be used.
Officials eventually decided on a massive concrete arch-gravity damthe design of which was overseen by the Bureau's chief design engineer John L. The monolithic dam would be thick at the bottom and thin near the top, and would present a convex face towards the water above the dam. The curving arch of the dam would transmit the water's force into the abutments, in this case the rock walls of the canyon.
The wedge-shaped dam would be ft m thick at the bottom, narrowing to 45 ft 14 m at the top, leaving room for a highway connecting Nevada and Arizona. On January 10,the Bureau made the bid documents available to interested parties, at five dollars a copy.
The government was to provide what was the black market in world war 2 materials, and the contractor was to prepare the site and build the how to win friends influence people. The dam was described in minute detail, covering pages of text and 76 drawings. The contractor had seven years to build the dam, or penalties would ensue.
The Wattis Brothersheads of the Utah Construction Companywere interested in bidding on the project, but lacked the money for the performance bond. They lacked sufficient resources even in combination with their longtime partners, Morrison-Knudsenwhich employed the nation's leading dam builder, Frank Marerials.
Shea Company of Portland, Oregon. The name was descriptive and was an inside joke katerials the San Franciscans in the bid, where "Six Companies" was also a Chinese benevolent association in the city. The city of Las Vegas had lobbied hard to be the headquarters for the dam construction, closing its many speakeasies when the decision maker, Secretary of the Interior Ray Wilburcame to town.
Instead, Wilbur announced in early that a model city was to be ro in the desert near the dam site. This town became known as Boulder City, Nevada. Construction of a rail line joining Las Vegas and the dam site began in September Soon after the dam was authorized, increasing numbers of unemployed people converged on southern Nevada.
Las Vegas, then a small city of some 5, saw between 10, and 20, unemployed descend on it. Known as McKeeversville, the camp was home to men hoping for work on the project, together with their families. As part of the contract, Six Companies, Inc.
The original timetable called for Boulder City to be built before the dam project began, but President Hoover ordered work on the dam to begin in March rather than in October. Workers with families were left to provide their own accommodations until Boulder City could be completed,  and many lived in Ragtown.
The Industrial Workers of the World IWW or "Wobblies"though much-reduced from their heyday as militant labor organizers in the early years of the century, hoped to unionize the Six Companies workers by capitalizing on their discontent.
They sent eleven organizers, what did st patrick do in ireland several of whom were what materials were used to build the hoover dam by Las Vegas police. Although the workers sent the organizers away, not wanting to be associated with the "Wobblies", they formed a committee to represent them with the company. The committee drew up a list of demands that evening and presented them to Crowe the following morning.
He was noncommittal. The workers hoped that Crowe, the general superintendent of the job, would be materiaals instead, he gave a scathing interview to a yhe, describing the workers as "malcontents".
On the morning of the 9th, Crowe met with the committee and told them that management refused their demands, was stopping all work, and was laying off the entire work force, except for a few office workers and carpenters.
The workers were given until 5 p. Concerned that a violent confrontation was imminent, most workers took their paychecks and left for Las Vegas to await developments. On August 13, the company began hiring workers again, and two days later, the strike was called off. Living conditions began to improve as the first residents moved into Boulder City in late A second labor action took place in Julyas construction on the dam wound down.
When a Six Companies manager altered working times to force workers to take lunch on their own time, workers responded with a strike. The company agreed buil ask the Federal government to supplement the pay, but no money was forthcoming from Washington. The strike ended. Before the dam could be built, the Colorado River needed to be diverted away from the construction site. To accomplish this, four diversion tunnels were driven through the canyon walls, two on the Nevada side and two on the Arizona side.
These tunnels were 56 ft 17 m in diameter. To meet the deadline, Six Companies maerials to complete work by earlysince uesd in late fall and winter was the water level in the river low enough to safely divert.
Tunneling began at the lower portals of the Nevada tunnels in May Shortly afterward, work began on two similar tunnels in the Arizona canyon wall. In Marchwork began on lining the tunnels with concrete. First the base, or invert, was poured. Gantry cranesrunning on rails through the entire length of each tunnel were used to place the concrete.
The sidewalls were tne next. Movable sections of steel forms were used for the sidewalls. Finally, using pneumatic guns, the overheads were filled in. The concrete lining is 3 feet 1 m thick, reducing the finished tunnel diameter to 50 ft 15 m.
This was done by exploding a temporary cofferdam protecting the Arizona sued while at the same time dumping rubble into the river until its natural course was blocked. Following the completion of the dam, the entrances to the two outer diversion tunnels were sealed at the opening and halfway through the tunnels with large concrete plugs.
The downstream halves of the tunnels following the inner plugs are now the main bodies of the spillway tunnels. To protect the construction site from the Colorado River and to facilitate the river's diversion, two cofferdams were constructed.
Work on the upper cofferdam began in Septembereven though the river had not yet been diverted. The upper cofferdam was 96 ft 29 m high, and feet m thick at its base, thicker than the dam itself.
It containedcubic yardsm 3 of material. When the cofferdams were in place and the construction site was drained of water, excavation for the dam foundation began.
Plastics, woods, steel, and concretes are only some of the materials which must be analyzed and experimented with in order to create the final project. For the Hoover Dam one should first know that. Nov 08, · Not much use for a dam! So what happened is that it was poured in blocks up to 15 metres square and metres high – all 2,, m3 of it! In addition, , m3 were used in the power plant and other works. More than kilometres of cooling pipes were placed within the concrete. At the time of its construction, Hoover Dam was mankind’s most massive masonry structure since the Great Pyramids. In all, it took this?and more?to create Hoover Dam: million cubic yards of concrete; 88 million pounds of plate steel and outlet pipes; million pounds of pipe and fittings; 45 million pounds of reinforced steel.
Never before had concrete been poured in such quantities! So here goes, how they built the hoover dam. For the Hoover Dam, however, it was calculated that, make it in a continuous pour, and it would take years to cool and would crack and crumble!
Not much use for a dam! So what happened is that it was poured in blocks up to 15 metres square and 1. In addition, , m3 were used in the power plant and other works. More than kilometres of cooling pipes were placed within the concrete.
Once an individual block had cured and had stopped contracting, the pipes were filled with grout. Grout was also used to fill the hairline spaces between columns, which were grooved to increase the strength of the joints.
The concrete was made in two massive concrete plants on the Nevada side. It was delivered to site by special rail cars in steel buckets which weighed 18 tonnes when full. The buckets were then suspended from aerial cableways, which were used to deliver the bucket to a specific column. The required size of aggregate in the concrete differed depending on placement in the dam from pea-sized gravel to mm stones so it was vital that the bucket be maneuvered to the proper column.
Once the bottom of the bucket opened up, it disgorged 6. All this was done between June and June Some going, eh? So why was it actually built? Multiple reasons: irrigation, flood prevention and hydroelectric power generation.
So now we know how the Hoover Dam was built, but that is just the end of that project! Before they could start on it they had to divert the the Colorado River away from the construction site. This required four diversion tunnels were driven through the canyon walls, two on the Nevada side and two on the Arizona side. These tunnels were 17 m. These were started in May and completed in September The actual site where men would be working was further protected by the construction of two temporary coffer dams which can be seen on the sketch above.
These were removed by blasting and the tunnels sealed once the Dam was completed. The other thing which had to happen before work could start pouring concrete was to remove accumulated erosion soils from the river bed and get down to solid rock upon which the concrete columns could be placed. During this excavation, approximately 1,, m3 of material was removed. Since the dam was an arch-gravity type, the side-walls of the canyon would bear the force of the impounded lake.
Therefore, the side-walls were excavated too, to reach virgin rock as weathered rock might provide pathways for water seepage. While suspended from the top of the canyon with ropes, high-scalers climbed down the canyon walls and removed the loose rock with jackhammers and dynamite. There are also jet flow gates which can be opened if the water level in the reservoir gets too high. The project seemed to create shanty towns full of migrants who appeared there. One guess is that there were as many as 20, of them.
Only about 4, were actually employed at any given time, though. It was vast project, completed in 4 years. My own feeling is that the price was very cheap. I suspect there is a reason for that. It was built during the years of the Great Depression so labour costs would have been at rock-bottom, but the lads would still have been glad to be bringing any cash in!
Written by. Follow us. You will be Interseted to Know about — How To Solve The Biggest Problems With Construction Delay Analysis The actual site where men would be working was further protected by the construction of two temporary coffer dams which can be seen on the sketch above.
And below we can see what is there today which is a great tourist attraction. Topics: Digital construction. In less than 3 months without spending extra on budget. Hand-picked related articles.
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