What is the approximate population of the united kingdom
The United Kingdom is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since The United Kingdom's capital is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of million. Apr 15, †Ј The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe.. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: as of [update]there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom Ч 51 in Englandsix in Walesseven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
The status does not apply automatically on the basis of any particular criteria, though in England and Wales it was traditionally given to towns with diocesan cathedrals. This association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established in the early s when King Henry VIII founded dioceses each having a cathedral in the see city in six English towns and granted them city status by issuing letters patent. City status in Ireland was granted to far fewer communities than in England and Wales, and there are only two preth-century cities in present-day What size tank for 3 goldfish Ireland.
In Scotland, city status did not explicitly receive any recognition by the what do you need to become an ultrasound tech until the 19th century. At that time, a revival of grants of city status took place, first in England, where the grants were accompanied by the establishment of new cathedrals, and later in Scotland and Ireland.
In the 20th century, it was explicitly recognised that the status of city in England and Wales would no longer be bound to the presence of a cathedral, and grants made since have been awarded to communities on a variety of criteria, including population size. The abolition of some corporate bodies as part of successive local-government reforms, beginning with the Municipal Corporations Ireland Acthas deprived some ancient cities of their status.
However, letters patent have been issued for most of the affected cities to ensure the continuation or restoration of their status. At present, Rochester and Elgin are the only former cities in the United Kingdom.
The name "City" does not, in itself, denote city status; it may be appended to place names for historic association e. White City or how to print 3x5 cards marketing or disambiguation e.
Stratford City. A number of large towns such as those with overresidents in the UK are bigger than some small cities, but cannot legitimately call themselves cities without the royal designation. The initial cities Latin : civitas of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages later preserved a traditional list of the " 28 Cities " Old Welsh : cair which was mentioned by Gildas  and listed by Nennius.
This association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established when Henry VIII founded new dioceses each having a cathedral in the see city in six English towns and also granted them city status by issuing letters patent demonstrating these were discrete procedures.
Some cities today are very small because they were granted city status in or before the 16th century, then were unaffected by population growth during the Industrial Revolution Чnotably Wells population about 10, and St Davids population about 2, After the 16th how to remove partition in linux, no new dioceses and no new cities were created until the 19th century in England a further city was created in Ireland during the rule of King James I in the 17th century.
A long-awaited resumption of creating dioceses began in with Ripon. Ripon Town Council assumed that this had elevated the town to the rank of a city, and started referring to itself as the City and Borough of Ripon. The next diocese formed was Manchester and its Borough Council began informally to use the title city.
When Queen Victoria visited Manchester inwidespread doubts surrounding its status were raised. The pretension was ended when the borough petitioned for city status, which was granted by letters patent in This eventually forced Ripon to regularise its position; its city status was recognised by Act of Parliament in From this year Ripon bore city status whilst the rapidly expanding conurbation of Leeds Ч in the Ripon diocese Ч did not.
The Manchester case established a precedent that any municipal borough in which an Anglican see was established was entitled to petition for city status. Accordingly, TruroSt AlbansLiverpoolNewcastle upon Tyne and Wakefield were all officially designated as cities between and This was not without opposition from the Home Officewhich dismissed St Albans as "a fourth or fifth rate market town" and objected to Wakefield 's elevation on grounds of population.
In one new diocese, Southwella city was not created, because it was a village without a borough corporation and therefore could not petition the Queen. The diocese covered the counties of Derbyshire what does sayonara mean in english Nottinghamshireand the boroughs of Derby and Nottingham were disappointed that they would not be able to claim the title of city.
The link with Anglican dioceses was broken within England in when Birmingham successfully petitioned for city status it was pre-empted in Ireland by Belfast in on the grounds of its large population and history of good local government.
At the time of the grant, Birmingham lacked an Anglican cathedral, although the parish church later what does having your teeth capped mean a cathedral in This new precedent was followed by other large municipalities: Leeds and Sheffield became cities inand BradfordKingston upon Hull and Nottingham were honoured on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in The last three had been the largest county boroughs outside the London area without city status.
Between andapplications were received from a number of other boroughs, but only Cardiff was successful in being designated a city in and granted a Lord Mayoralty as "the Metropolis of Wales". The London Government Act abolished the existing local authorities within the County of London and replaced them with 28 metropolitan boroughs.
Among the bodies to be dissolved was the How to remove color stain from leather bag of Burgesses of the City of Westminster. William Burdett-Couttsone of Westminster's members of parliament, brought forward an amendment to rename the proposed borough of Greater Westminster to City of Westminster. This was intended to give "recognition to how do i get paid to advertise on my car title which the area He felt that if the status was not retained for the new how to prepare aaloo tikki it "must necessarily disappear altogether".
The amendment was rejected by the government, however, with the First Lord of the TreasuryArthur Balfourbelieving it would be "an anomaly which, I think, would be not unnaturally resented by other districts which are as large in point of population as Westminster, although doubtless not so rich in historical associations". This policy, which was not at the time made how to start a banner printing business, had the effect of stemming the number of city creations.
However, well into the 20th century it was often assumed that the presence of a cathedral was sufficient to elevate a town to city status, and that for cathedral cities the city charters were recognising its city status rather what raises ph in water granting it. Inan application for city status by Portsmouth was refused.
Explaining the Home Secretary 's reason for not recommending the King to approve the petition, the Lord Advocate stated:. Following the First World Warthe King made an official visit to Leicester in to commemorate its contributions to the military victory. The borough council had made several applications for city status sinceand took the opportunity of the visit to renew its request.
Leicester had a population of approximatelyat the previous census, but its petition was granted as an exception to the policy, as it was officially a restoration of a dignity lost in the past. The decision was overturned, however, as it was felt to have outstanding importance as the centre of the pottery industry.
The what is the approximate population of the united kingdom relaxation of the population rule led to applications from Portsmouth and Salford. The civil servants in the Home Office were minded to refuse both applications.
In particular, Salford was felt to be "merely a scratch collection ofpeople cut off from Manchester by the river". Salford's case, however, was considered favourably by the Home Secretary, William Joynson-Hickswho had once been MP for a neighbouring constituency of Manchester.
Following protests from Portsmouthwhich felt it had better credentials as a larger town and as the "first Naval Port of the kingdom", both applications were approved in The question arose as to which towns were entitled to be called cities, and the chairman, the Earl of Onslowwrote to the Home Office to seek clarification.
The Home Office replied with a memorandum that read:. The title of a city which is borne by certain boroughs is a purely titular distinction. It has no connexion with the status of the borough in respect of local government and confers no powers or privileges. At the present time and for several centuries past the title has been obtained only by an express grant from the Sovereign effected by letters patent; but a certain number of cities possess the title by very ancient prescriptive right.
There is no necessary connexion between the title of a city and the seat of a bishopric, and the creation of a new see neither constitutes the town concerned a city nor gives it any claim to the grant of letters patent creating it a city. InPlymouth submitted an application for city status. As the borough had more inhabitants than Portsmouth and had absorbed Devonport and East Stonehousethe King agreed to the request.
However, he indicated that he had "come to an end of city making", and Southampton's application in the following year was turned down. With a population of a little over 50, Lancaster was stated to be an exception due to the town's "long association with the crown" and because it was "the county town of the King's Duchy of Lancaster".
Following the Second World Warmembers of Cambridge Borough Council made contact with What are some major cities in mississippi officials for assistance in their application. Cambridge became a city inagain for "exceptional" reasons, as the only ancient seat of learning in the kingdom not a city or royal burgh and to coincide with the th anniversary of the borough's first charter of incorporation. It was anticipated that the coronation of Elizabeth II in would lead to the creation of a city, and WolverhamptonPreston and Southampton made approaches; the only civic honour given was that of a lord mayoralty to Coventry.
Derby and Southwark made unsuccessful applications in The planned reorganisations by the Local Government Commissions for England and Wales from effectively blocked new city grants. Southampton lodged a petition in Initially refused inpending the decision of the Commission, it was eventually allowed in While the City of London was permitted to continue in existence largely unchanged, Westminster was merged with two neighbouring authorities to form a new London borough from 1 April With the establishment of the Royal Commission on Local Government in England incity grants were again in abeyance in England.
Attempts by DerbyTeesside and Wolverhampton to become cities were not proceeded with. In Wales, Swansea campaigned for city status throughout the s. The campaign came to a successful conclusion inin conjunction with the investiture of Charles, Prince of Wales. The Local Government Act abolished all existing local authorities outside London other than parish councils in England and Wales.
This meant that the various local authorities that held city status ceased to exist on 1 April Three non-local authority preservations arose: here charter trustees were established for the cities of Lichfield and Salisbury or New Sarum being neither districts nor civil parishes, and special letters patent for a time preserved the city of Rochester. City status was temporarily lost until new letters patent were issued in November of the same year.
An innovation on this occasion was that a competition was to be held, and communities would be required to submit applications. Sunderland was the successful applicant. A large number of towns have applied for the honour in recent decades including BlackpoolColchesterCroydonGatesheadIpswichMiddlesbroughMilton KeynesReading and Swindon.
Four successful applicants in England have become cities, as well as two in Wales; in for the Millennium Celebrations, the how to extract compressed files cities were Brighton and Hove and Wolverhampton ; in for the Queen's Golden Jubilee it was Preston and Newportand in for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee it was Chelmsford and St Asaph. Other than the cities of London and Westminsterno local authorities in the Greater London area have been granted city status.
The Home Office had a policy of resisting any attempt by metropolitan boroughs to become cities even when their populations, and other proposed claims as qualifying criteria, might otherwise have made them eligible. It was felt that such a grant would undermine the status of the two existing cities in the capital. The Metropolitan Borough of Southwark made a number of applications, but in the borough's town clerk was told not to pursue the matter any further.
The same objections were made when the London Boroughs of Croydon and Southwark unsuccessfully entered the competition for city status to mark the millennium: Croydon was said to have "no particular identity of its own" while Southwark was "part of London with little individual identity".
It was joined by the London Borough of Greenwichwhich emphasised its royal and maritime connections, while claiming to be "to London what Versailles is to Paris". Rochester was recognised as a city from to On 1 Aprilthe city council was abolished, becoming part of the Borough of Medwaya local government district in the county of Kent. However, under letters patent the former city council area was to continue to be styled the "City of Rochester" to "perpetuate the ancient name" and to recall "the long history and proud heritage of the said city".
Inthe Borough of Medway was renamed as Rochester-upon-Medwayand in further letters patent transferred the city status to the entire borough. Since it was the local government district that officially held city status under the letters patent, when it was abolished, it also ceased to be a city.
Whilst the two other local government districts with city status Bath and Hereford that were abolished around this time decided to appoint charter trustees to maintain the existence of the city and the mayoralty, Rochester-upon-Medway City Council did not do so. Medway Council apparently only became aware of this when, inthey how to do interior design drawings that Rochester was not on the Lord Chancellor's Office 's list of cities.
Scotland had no cities by royal charter or letters patent before
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City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: as of , there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom Ц 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland. Although it carries no special rights, the status of city can be a marker of prestige and confer local pride. On 3 October , United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres appointed Dr. Natalia Kanem Executive Director of UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. She brings to the position more than 30 years of strategic leadership experience in the fields of medicine, public and reproductive health, peace, social justice, and philanthropy. The United Kingdom is the country for which we have the best information on the distribution of income over the very long run. This information is visualized in this chart. The top panel shows the share of total income going to the top 5% of income earners, and the bottom panel shows the Gini coefficients.
Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain , the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world.
With an area of , square kilometres 93, sq mi , the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated Together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union EU.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The capital of the United Kingdom and its largest city is London , a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh , Cardiff and Belfast , respectively.
The nearby Isle of Man , Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the United Kingdom, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.
These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the s, encompassed almost a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history.
British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.
It has a high-income economy and has a very high Human Development Index rating , ranking 14th in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power , with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally.
It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in A referendum in resulted in Settlement by anatomically modern humans of what was to become the United Kingdom occurred in waves beginning by about 30, years ago. By the end of the region's prehistoric period , the population is thought to have belonged, in the main, to a culture termed Insular Celtic, comprising Brythonic Britain and Gaelic Ireland.
The Roman conquest , beginning in 43 AD, and the year rule of southern Britain , was followed by an invasion by Germanic Anglo-Saxon settlers, reducing the Brythonic area mainly to what was to become Wales and the historic Kingdom of Strathclyde.
Most of the region settled by the Anglo-Saxons became unified as the Kingdom of England in the 10th century.
Meanwhile, Gaelic-speakers in north-west Britain with connections to the north-east of Ireland and traditionally supposed to have migrated from there in the 5th century united with the Picts to create the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century. In , the Normans invaded England from France and after its conquest , seized large parts of Wales, conquered much of Ireland and were invited to settle in Scotland, bringing to each country feudalism on the Northern French model and Norman-French culture.
The Norman elites greatly influenced, but eventually assimilated with, each of the local cultures. Subsequent medieval English kings completed the conquest of Wales and made an unsuccessful attempt to annex Scotland. Following the Declaration of Arbroath , Scotland maintained its independence, albeit in near-constant conflict with England.
The English monarchs, through inheritance of substantial territories in France and claims to the French crown, were also heavily involved in conflicts in France, most notably the Hundred Years War , while the Kings of Scots were in an alliance with the French during this period. The early modern period saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches in each country. Wales was fully incorporated into the Kingdom of England, and Ireland was constituted as a kingdom in personal union with the English crown.
In what was to become Northern Ireland, the lands of the independent Catholic Gaelic nobility were confiscated and given to Protestant settlers from England and Scotland. In , the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scots , inherited the crowns of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal, and religious institutions.
In the midth century, all three kingdoms were involved in a series of connected wars including the English Civil War which led to the temporary overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the short-lived unitary republic of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, British sailors were involved in acts of piracy privateering , attacking and stealing from ships off the coast of Europe and the Caribbean.
Although the monarchy was restored, the Interregnum ensured along with the Glorious Revolution of and the subsequent Bill of Rights , and the Claim of Right Act that, unlike much of the rest of Europe, royal absolutism would not prevail, and a professed Catholic could never accede to the throne.
The British constitution would develop on the basis of constitutional monarchy and the parliamentary system. With the founding of the Royal Society in , science was greatly encouraged. During this period, particularly in England, the development of naval power and the interest in voyages of discovery led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas colonies , particularly in North America. On 1 May , the united Kingdom of Great Britain came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms.
In the 18th century, cabinet government developed under Robert Walpole , in practice the first prime minister Ч The Jacobites were finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden in , after which the Scottish Highlanders were brutally suppressed. British imperial ambition turned elsewhere, particularly to India.
During the 18th century, Britain was involved in the Atlantic slave trade. British ships transported an estimated two million slaves from Africa to the West Indies before banning the trade in , banning slavery in , and taking a leading role in the movement to abolish slavery worldwide by pressing other nations to end their trade with a series of treaties, and then formed the world's oldest international human rights organisation, Anti-Slavery International, in London in The term "United Kingdom" became official in when the parliaments of Britain and Ireland each passed an Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In the early 19th century, the British-led Industrial Revolution began to transform the country. Gradually political power shifted away from the old Tory and Whig landowning classes towards the new industrialists. An alliance of merchants and industrialists with the Whigs would lead to a new party, the Liberals , with an ideology of free trade and laissez-faire.
In Parliament passed the Great Reform Act, which began the transfer of political power from the aristocracy to the middle classes. In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out. Towns and cities began to swell with a new urban working class. Few ordinary workers had the vote, and they created their own organisations in the form of trade unions. After the defeat of France at the end of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Ч , the United Kingdom emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century with London the largest city in the world from about Unchallenged at sea , British dominance was later described as Pax Britannica "British Peace" , a period of relative peace in Europe and the world Ч during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
By the time of the Great Exhibition of , Britain was described as the "workshop of the world". The British Empire was expanded to include India , large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. Domestically, political attitudes favoured free trade and laissez-faire policies and a gradual widening of the voting franchise.
During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the Conservative Party under Disraeli launched a period of imperialist expansion in Egypt, South Africa, and elsewhere. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand became self-governing dominions.
After the turn of the century, the United Kingdom's industrial monopoly was challenged by Germany and the United States.
Social reform and home rule for Ireland were important domestic issues after The Labour Party emerged from an alliance of trade unions and small Socialist groups in , and suffragettes campaigned for women's right to vote before The United Kingdom armed forces were engaged across much of the British Empire and in several regions of Europe, particularly on the Western front. The high fatalities of trench warfare caused the loss of much of a generation of men, with lasting social effects in the nation and a great disruption in the social order.
After the war, the United Kingdom received the League of Nations mandate over a number of former German and Ottoman colonies. The British Empire reached its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population. However, the United Kingdom had suffered 2. The rise of Irish nationalism, and disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Rule, led eventually to the partition of the island in The Irish Free State became independent with Dominion status in Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.
A wave of strikes in the mids culminated in the United Kingdom General Strike of The United Kingdom had still not recovered from the effects of the war when the Great Depression Ч occurred. This led to considerable unemployment and hardship in the old industrial areas, as well as political and social unrest in the s, with rising membership in communist and socialist parties. A coalition government was formed in Winston Churchill became prime minister and head of a coalition government in Despite the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, the United Kingdom continued the fight alone against Germany.
The United Kingdom suffered heavy bombing during the Blitz. There were also eventual hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlantic , the North Africa campaign and Burma campaign.
United Kingdom forces played an important role in the Normandy landings of , achieved with its United States ally. However, the war left the UK severely weakened and depending financially on the Marshall Plan. In the immediate post-war years, the Labour government initiated a radical programme of reforms, which had a significant effect on British society in the following decades. Major industries and public utilities were nationalised , a welfare state was established, and a comprehensive, publicly funded healthcare system, the National Health Service , was created.
The rise of nationalism in the colonies coincided with Britain's now much-diminished economic position, so that a policy of decolonisation was unavoidable. Independence was granted to India and Pakistan in Over the next three decades, most colonies of the British Empire gained their independence.
Many became members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Although the UK was the third country to develop a nuclear weapons arsenal with its first atomic bomb test in , the new post-war limits of Britain's international role were illustrated by the Suez Crisis of The international spread of the English language ensured the continuing international influence of its literature and culture.
As a result of a shortage of workers in the s, the government encouraged immigration from Commonwealth countries. In the following decades, the UK became a more multi-ethnic society than before. Despite rising living standards in the late s and s, the UK's economic performance was not as successful as many of its competitors, such as West Germany and Japan. In the decade-long process of European integration, the UK was a founding member of the alliance called the Western European Union , established with the London and Paris Conferences in The Treaty of Lisbon was signed in , which forms the constitutional basis of the European Union since then.
From the late s, Northern Ireland suffered communal and paramilitary violence sometimes affecting other parts of the UK conventionally known as the Troubles. It is usually considered to have ended with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement of
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