Meningitis how to get it
Jun 11, · Bacteria that cause meningitis can live in your body and the environment around you. In many cases they are harmless. Bacterial meningitis occurs when these bacteria get in your Author: Erica Roth. Dec 31, · Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. Infectious diseases like bacteria or viruses, a fungus, or parasites can cause meningitis. Some cases of meningitis can be noninfectious in origin. Headache, fever, and stiff neck are the most common symptoms of meningitis.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the fluid and membranes meninges surrounding your brain and spinal cord. The swelling from meningitis typically triggers signs and symptoms such as headache, fever and a stiff neck.
Most cases of meningitis in the United States are caused by a viral infection, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are other gdt. Some cases of meningitis improve without treatment in a few weeks. Others can be life-threatening and tl emergency antibiotic treatment. Seek immediate medical care if you suspect that someone has meningitis.
Early treatment of bacterial meningitis can prevent serious complications. Early meningitis symptoms may mimic the flu too. Symptoms may develop over several hours or over a few days. Seek immediate medical care if you or someone in your family has meningitis signs or symptoms, such as:. Bacterial meningitis is serious and can be fatal within days without prompt antibiotic treatment. Delayed treatment increases the risk of permanent brain damage or death.
It's also important to talk to your doctor if a family member or someone you live or work with has hkw. You may need meninvitis take medications to prevent getting the infection. Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of the fluid and three membranes meninges protecting your brain and spinal cord.
The tough outer membrane is called the dura mater, and the delicate inner layer is the pia mater. The middle layer is the arachnoid, a weblike structure containing the fluid and blood vessels covering the surface of the brain. Viral infections are the most common cause of meningitis, followed by bacterial infections and, rarely, fungal and parasitic infections.
Because bacterial infections kt be life-threatening, identifying the cause is essential. Bacteria that enter the bloodstream and what does it when your left hand itches to the brain and spinal cord cause acute bacterial meningitis.
But it can also occur when bacteria directly invade the meninges. This may be caused by an ear or sinus infection, a skull fracture, or — rarely — some surgeries. Viral meningitis is usually mild and geh clears on its own. Most cases in the United States are caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, which are most common in late summer and early fall. Viruses such as meningittis simplex virus, HIVmumps virus, West Nile virus and others also can cause viral meningitis.
Slow-growing organisms such as fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that invade the membranes and fluid surrounding your meeningitis cause chronic meningitis. Chronic meningitis develops over two weeks or more.
The signs and symptoms of chronic meningitis — headache, fever, vomiting and mental cloudiness — are similar to those of acute meningitis. Fungal meningitis is relatively uncommon in the United States. It may mimic acute bacterial meningitis. It's often contracted by breathing in fungal meninggitis that may be found fet soil, decaying wood and bird droppings. Fungal meningitis isn't contagious from person to person.
Cryptococcal meningitis is a common fungal form of the disease that affects people with immune deficiencies, such as AIDS. It's life-threatening if not treated with an antifungal medication. Even with treatment, fungal meningitis may recur. Parasites can cause a rare type of meningitis called eosinophilic meningitis. Parasitic meningitis can also be caused by a tapeworm infection in the brain cysticercosis or cerebral malaria. Amoebic meningitis is a rare type that is sometimes contracted through swimming in fresh water and can quickly become life-threatening.
The ohw parasites that cause meningitis typically infect animals. People are usually infected by eating foods contaminated with these parasites. Parasitic meningitis isn't spread between people. Meningitis can also result from noninfectious causes, such jeningitis chemical how to measure bolt pattern on 8 lug wheels, drug allergies, some types of cancer hiw inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis.
Meningitis menimgitis can be severe. The longer you or your child has the disease without treatment, the greater the risk of seizures and permanent neurological damage, including:.
Common bacteria or viruses that can cause meningitis can spread through coughing, sneezing, kissing, or sharing eating utensils, a toothbrush or a cigarette. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine.
The CDC recommends that a single dose be given to children ages 11 to 12, with egt booster menjngitis given at age If the vaccine is first given between ages 13 and 15, the booster is recommended between ages 16 and If the first shot is given at age 16 or older, no booster is necessary.
This vaccine can also be given to children between the ages of 2 months and 10 years who are at high risk of bacterial meningitis or who have been exposed to someone with the disease.
It's also used to vaccinate healthy but meningitis how to get it unvaccinated people who have been exposed in outbreaks. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Mrningitis Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version.
This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Meningitis is an inflammation of the fluid and membranes meninges surrounding your brain and spinal cord. Request an Appointment at Mayo Meningitis how to get it. Meningitis Open pop-up dialog box Close. Meningitis Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of the fluid and three membranes meninges protecting your brain and spinal cord. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Meningitis and encephalitis fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Accessed Sept. Bacterial meningitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bartt R. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis. Continuum Lifelong Learning in Neurology. Viral meningitis.
Fungal meningitis. Now CJ, et al. Head and neck emergencies: Bacterial meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess, upper airway obstruction, and jugular septic thrombophlebitis. Medical Clinics of North What is the catholic church worth. Longo DL, et al. Acute meningitis. In: Harrison's Principals of Internal Medicine. McGraw Hill; vet Acute bacterial meningitis. Merck Manual Professional Version. Prevention — Listeriosis.
Subacute and chronic meningitis. Van de Beek D, et al. Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis. The Lancet. Recommended immunization schedules for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger, United States, t Recommended adult immunization schedule for adults aged 19 or older, United States, Meningococcal vaccination: What everyone should know.
Sexton D. Approach to the patient with chronic meningitis. Tunkel A. Aseptic meningitis in adults. Di Pentima C. Viral meningitis: Management, prognosis, and prevention in children. Parasitic meningitis. Rabinstein AA expert opinion. Mayo Clinic. Summary of WHO position how to catch lugia in pokemon black — Recommendations for routine immunization.
World Health Organization.
Mar 16, · Viral, or aseptic, meningitis is usually caused by enteroviruses—common viruses that enter the body through the mouth and travel to the brain and surrounding tissues where they multiply. Enteroviruses are present in mucus, saliva, and feces, and can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or an infected object or surface. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by a bacterial, fungal or viral infection. Meningitis can be acute, with a quick onset of symptoms, it can be chronic, lasting a month or more, or it can be mild or aseptic.
What is meningitis? What is encephalitis? What causes meningitis and encephalitis? Who is at risk for encephalitis and meningitis? How are these disorders transmitted? What are the signs and symptoms? How are meningitis and encephalitis diagnosed? How are these infections treated? Can meningitis and encephalitis be prevented? What is the prognosis for these infections? What research is being done? Where can I get more information? Infections and other disorders affecting the brain and spinal cord can activate the immune system, which leads to inflammation.
These diseases, and the resulting inflammation, can produce a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, seizures, and changes in behavior or confusion.
In extreme cases, these can cause brain damage, stroke, or even death. Inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, is called meningitis ; inflammation of the brain itself is called encephalitis. Myelitis refers to inflammation of the spinal cord. When both the brain and the spinal cord are involved, the condition is called encephalomyelitis.
Infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. For some individuals, environmental exposure such as a parasite , recent travel, or an immunocompromised state such as HIV, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy treatment are important risk factors. Bacterial meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal disease.
Several types of bacteria can first cause an upper respiratory tract infection and then travel through the bloodstream to the brain. The disease can also occur when certain bacteria invade the meninges directly.
Bacterial meningitis can cause stroke, hearing loss, and permanent brain damage. Other forms of bacterial meningitis include Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in which certain foods such as unpasteurized dairy or deli meats are sometimes implicated ; Escherichia coli meningitis , which is most common in elderly adults and newborns and may be transmitted to a baby through the birth canal; and Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis , a rare disease that occurs when the bacterium that causes tuberculosis attacks the meninges.
Viral, or aseptic, meningitis is usually caused by enteroviruses—common viruses that enter the body through the mouth and travel to the brain and surrounding tissues where they multiply. Enteroviruses are present in mucus, saliva, and feces, and can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or an infected object or surface.
Other viruses that cause meningitis include varicella zoster the virus that causes chicken pox and can appear decades later as shingles , influenza, mumps, HIV, and herpes simplex type 2 genital herpes.
Fungal infections can affect the brain. The most common form of fungal meningitis is caused by the fungus cryptococcus neoformans found mainly in dirt and bird droppings.
Cryptococcal meningitis mostly occurs in immunocompromised individuals such as those with AIDS but can also occur in healthy people. Some of these cases can be slow to develop and smolder for weeks.
Although treatable, fungal meningitis often recurs in nearly half of affected persons. Parasitic causes include cysticercosis a tapeworm infection in the brain , which is common in other parts of the world, as well as cerebral malaria. There are rare cases of amoebic meningitis, sometimes related to fresh water swimming, which can be rapidly fatal.
Encephalitis, usually viral, can be caused by some of the same infections listed above. However, up to 60 percent of cases remain undiagnosed. Several thousand cases of encephalitis are reported each year, but many more may occur since the symptoms may be mild to non-existent in most individuals.
Most diagnosed cases of encephalitis in the United States are caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, arboviruses such as West Nile Virus , which are transmitted from infected animals to humans through the bite of an infected tick, mosquito, or other blood-sucking insect, or enteroviruses. Lyme disease, a bacterial infection spread by tick bite, occasionally causes meningitis, and very rarely encephalitis.
Rabies virus, which is transmitted by bites of rabid animals, is an extremely rare cause of human encephalitis. Herpes simplex encephalitis HSE is responsible for about 10 percent of all encephalitis cases, with a frequency of about 2 cases per million persons per year. More than half of untreated cases are fatal. About 30 percent of cases result from the initial infection with the herpes simplex virus; the majority of cases are caused by reactivation of an earlier infection. Most people acquire herpes simplex virus type 1 the cause of cold sores or fever blisters in childhood.
HSE due to herpes simplex virus type 1 can affect any age group but is most often seen in persons under age 20 or over age This rapidly progressing disease is the single most important cause of fatal sporadic encephalitis in the United States. Symptoms can include headache and fever for up to 5 days, followed by personality and behavioral changes, seizures, hallucinations, and altered levels of consciousness.
Brain damage in adults and in children beyond the first month of life is usually seen in the frontal lobes leading to behavioral and personality changes and temporal lobes leading to memory and speech problems and can be severe.
Type 2 virus genital herpes is most often transmitted through sexual contact. Many people do not know they are infected and may not have active genital lesions. An infected mother can transmit the disease to her child at birth, through contact with genital secretions. In newborns, symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, tremors, seizures, and poor feeding generally develop between 4 and 11 days after delivery.
Outside the United States, Japanese encephalitis is one of the most common causes of encephalitis worldwide. It is widespread in Asia and is transmitted by a mosquito. A vaccine is available so travelers to at-risk areas should discuss this with their healthcare provider. Powassan encephalitis is rare but is the only well-documented tick-borne arbovirus in the United States and Canada. Symptoms are noticed days following the bite most people do not notice tick bites and may include headache, fever, nausea, confusion, partial paralysis, coma, and seizures.
It is also possible to develop encephalitis that has non-infectious or autoimmune causes. NMDA-Receptor encephalitis is a type of autoantibody-mediated encephalitis and is being increasingly recognized; it was the most documented form of non-bacterial meningitis reported in the long-term study and follow-up of participants in the California Encephalitis project.
Anyone—from infants to older adults—can get encephalitis or meningitis. People with weakened immune systems, including those persons with HIV or those taking immunosuppressant drugs, are at increased risk. Some forms of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis are contagious and can be spread through contact with saliva, nasal discharge, feces, or respiratory and throat secretions often spread through kissing, coughing, or sharing drinking glasses, eating utensils, or such personal items as toothbrushes, lipstick, or cigarettes.
For example, people sharing a household, at a day care center, or in a classroom with an infected person can become infected. College students living in dormitories—in particular, college freshmen—have a higher risk of contracting meningococcal meningitis than college students overall. Children who have not been given routine vaccines are at increased risk of developing certain types of bacterial meningitis. Because these diseases can occur suddenly and progress rapidly, anyone who is suspected of having either meningitis or encephalitis should immediately contact a doctor or go to the hospital.
The hallmark signs of meningitis include some or all of the following: sudden fever, severe headache, nausea or vomiting, double vision, drowsiness, sensitivity to bright light, and a stiff neck. Encephalitis can be characterized by fever, seizures, change in behavior, and confusion and disorientation. Related neurological signs depend on which part of the brain is affected by the encephalitic process as some of these are quite localized while others are more widespread.
Meningitis often appears with flu-like symptoms that develop over days. Distinctive rashes are typically seen in some forms of the disease. Meningococcal meningitis may be associated with kidney and adrenal gland failure and shock. Individuals with encephalitis often show mild flu-like symptoms.
In more severe cases, people may experience problems with speech or hearing, double vision, hallucinations, personality changes, and loss of consciousness. Other severe complications include loss of sensation in some parts of the body, muscle weakness, partial paralysis in the arms and legs, impaired judgment, seizures, and memory loss.
Following a physical exam and medical history to review activities of the past several days or weeks such as recent exposure to insects, ticks or animals, any contact with ill persons, or recent travel; preexisting medical conditions and medications , the doctor may order various diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of infection or inflammation. Brain imaging can reveal signs of brain inflammation, internal bleeding or hemorrhage, or other brain abnormalities.
Two painless, noninvasive imaging procedures are routinely used to diagnose meningitis and encephalitis. Additionally, electroencephalography, or EEG, can identify abnormal brain waves by monitoring electrical activity in the brain noninvasively through the skull. People who are suspected of having meningitis or encephalitis should receive immediate, aggressive medical treatment.
Both diseases can progress quickly and have the potential to cause severe, irreversible neurological damage. Early treatment of bacterial meningitis involves antibiotics that can cross the blood-brain barrier a lining of cells that keeps harmful micro-organisms and chemicals from entering the brain.
Appropriate antibiotic treatment for most types of meningitis can greatly reduce the risk of dying from the disease. Anticonvulsants to prevent seizures and corticosteroids to reduce brain inflammation may be prescribed. Infected sinuses may need to be drained.
Corticosteroids such as prednisone may be ordered to relieve brain pressure and swelling and to prevent hearing loss that is common in Haemophilus influenza meningitis. Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics. Antibiotics, developed to kill bacteria, are not effective against viruses.
Fortunately, viral meningitis is rarely life threatening and no specific treatment is needed. Fungal meningitis is treated with intravenous antifungal medications.
Antiviral drugs used to treat viral encephalitis include acyclovir and ganciclovir. For most encephalitis-causing viruses, no specific treatment is available. Autoimmune causes of encephalitis are treated with additional immunosuppressant drugs and screening for underlying tumors when appropriate. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, a non-infectious inflammatory brain disease mostly seen in children, is treated with steroids. Anticonvulsants may be prescribed to stop or prevent seizures.
Corticosteroids can reduce brain swelling. Affected individuals with breathing difficulties may require artificial respiration.
Once the acute illness is under control, comprehensive rehabilitation should include cognitive rehabilitation and physical, speech, and occupational therapy.
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