How to measure water flow in a river
How to measure stream flow rate
Mar 19, · The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water. To measure the flow rate using the float method: Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream. How to measure municipal or well water water pressure at a building: this article describes how to measure water pressure and water flow in buildings in order to diagnose bad pressure or bad water flow. The process of water pressure problem diagnosis and the costs of the repair are explained.
All water flow meter types have unique working principlesspecific benefits, and costs. A water flow meter measures the amount of water flowing through a pipe.
There are several working principles to choose from, depending on the application, maintenance needs, and budget. The four most common water flow meter types are turbine also called mechanicvortex, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic. This article will tell you everything you need to know about them and help you choose one for your application. If you would like to see our selection, take a look at our water flow meters.
The most popular and cheapest way to measure water flow, a turbine flow metermeasures the speed of the water running through a pipe with a rotating turbine or piston in it, usually in a propeller, shunt, or paddle wheel design. The volumetric flow rate of the water is proportional to the speed of the rotating blades.
Sadly, these meters can clog in dirty or chunky water, such as process water, which increases maintenance costs, so for those applications, we recommend electromagnetic process flow meters. In a vortex flow metera sensor tab flexes from side to side as each vortex flows past, producing a frequency directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate.
Multivariable vortex meters measure up to five process variables with one connection: volumetric flow rate, mass flow, density, pressure, and temperature.
Insertion vortex meters work well on very large pipes since you can insert them by hot tapping with a retractor. Ultrasonic water flow meters use ultrasound to measure flow.
A transit-time ultrasonic meter sends one signal downstream and another upstream. Then the meter compares the travel time for both signals to find the flow velocity. Finally, it uses this calculation to find the volumetric flow rate. You can also measure energy and temperature using the differences between the hot and cold legs.
Clamp-on ultrasonic meters measure water from outside the pipe by sending signals through the pipe walls. This feature makes them ideal for measuring flow in large pipes and a wide range of other processes. Liquid flowing through a magnetic field creates a charge. So when the fluid flows faster, it creates more voltage, proportional to the movement of the water.
The flow meter then processes the voltage into the flow rate. Depending on the brand, you can also have a confusing range of liners to choose from. You need to know the chemical compatibility, flow velocity, and potential abrasion in your application. So this information will factor into your choice of the best liner for your application. For pure water, you can go with a simple liner like hard rubber or polyurethane, but if you anticipate corrosive chemicals or process water, you will need something else.
If you are unsure what to choose, how to change administrator privileges windows 8 us a call and our experts will be happy to help. Electromagnetic flow meters are especially suited to measure process water flow since chunky liquids can clog turbine or vortex flow meters.
Keep in mind that your process water dictates the equipment you use. Some chemicals may attack your flow meter and shorten its lifespan. Otherwise, just go with polyurethane or hard rubber liners.
Are you reading this article to find the right flow meter for your process? Use our Product Finderthe step-by-step guide to find the perfect product for you. Buy flow meters in our online shop. The ideal water flow meter type is determined by the details of your application because some flow meters work better than others in certain situations.
Water flow meter: the most important types and applications. Scott Rouse May 28, Water flow meter types Turbine water flow meter The most popular and cheapest way to measure how to reset your password on mac flow, a turbine flow metermeasures the speed of the water running through a pipe with a rotating turbine or piston in it, usually in a propeller, shunt, or paddle wheel design.
Buy online now. Searching for automation devices? Find the right device for your application. Visit eShop. Picomag Electromagnetic flow meter with wireless remote access. Ultraflow U Ultrasonic flow meter with display.
How to Interpret Your Private Well Water Pressure & Flow Measurements
May 28, · Water flow meter types Turbine water flow meter. The most popular and cheapest way to measure water flow, a turbine flow meter, measures the speed of the water running through a pipe with a rotating turbine or piston in it, usually in a propeller, shunt, or paddle wheel design. The volumetric flow rate of the water is proportional to the speed. Aug 25, · Large Commercial Tidal Flow Turbines. There are a number of large underwater turbine offerings that are aimed at large (multi mega watt) tidal flow installations. The 2nd reference has detailed information on a number of these. Spiral Pump. The spiral pump is a water pump (not a power generator) that can be driven by an undershot waterwheel. Avoid measuring the flow from a small valve such as a hose bib, as the valve may substantially reduce the flow. Remove the valve and measure the full flow from the open pipe end if possible. Get a one gallon container, and time how long it takes to fill it with water. For the best accuracy measure the flow 3 or 4 times and average the times.
The main stem of the river is 96 miles km long, and measured to its furthest headwaters it is about miles km long. Originating as three forks in the high Sierra Nevada , the river flows generally southwest through the agricultural San Joaquin Valley to join the San Joaquin south of Manteca , draining parts of five California counties. The Stanislaus is known for its swift rapids and scenic canyons in the upper reaches, and is heavily used for irrigation , hydroelectricity and domestic water supply.
Originally inhabited by the Miwok group of Native Americans , the Stanislaus River was explored in the early s by the Spanish , who conscripted indigenous people to work in the colonial mission and presidio systems. During the California Gold Rush , the Stanislaus River was the destination of tens of thousands of gold seekers; many of them reached California via Sonora Pass , at the headwaters of the Middle Fork. Many miners and their families eventually settled along the lower Stanislaus River.
The farms and ranches they established are now part of the richest agricultural region in the United States. Early mining companies were formed to channel Stanislaus River water to the gold diggings via elaborate canal and flume systems, which directly preceded the irrigation districts formed by farmers who sought a greater degree of river control.
Starting in the early s, many dams were built to store and divert water; these were often paired with hydro-power systems, whose revenues covered the high cost of the water projects. In the s the construction of the federal New Melones Dam incited major opposition from recreation and environmental groups documented on the Stanislaus River Archive , who protested the loss of one of the last free-flowing stretches of the Stanislaus.
Although New Melones was eventually built, its completion is considered to have marked the end of large dam building in the United States. Water rights along the Stanislaus River are a controversial topic, with the senior rights of farmers coming into conflict with federal and state laws protecting endangered salmon and steelhead trout.
The Stanislaus irrigation districts contend that diverting water for fish damages the local economy, especially in years of drought. Water managers have struggled to find a balance between competing needs, which also include groundwater recharge , flood control, and river-based recreation such as fishing and whitewater rafting. The Middle Fork , 46 miles 74 km long, is the largest tributary and is sometimes considered part of the main stem.
Below the Beardsley dam, it continues west to its confluence with the North Fork at Camp Nine, a popular swimming and fishing area near Hathaway Pines.
For most of their lengths, both forks flow in deep canyons through rugged, heavily forested terrain. It flows southwest through a canyon to the 12,acre 5, ha New Melones Lake reservoir in the Sierra Nevada foothills, forming the boundary between Calaveras County west and Tuolumne County east.
At the reservoir, it is joined by the smaller South Fork , which descends for 42 miles 68 km from the Sierra Nevada to the east. Much of State Route the Sonora Pass Highway runs parallel to the South Fork, as well as the upper part of the Middle Fork, linking a number of small communities in the upper Stanislaus basin.
Reduced considerably in size, the Stanislaus River leaves the foothills and enters agricultural Stanislaus County at the historic Gold Rush town of Knights Ferry. It is paralleled by State Route as it flows west into the Central Valley, through Oakdale , the largest town on the river, and along the northern edge of the Modesto metro area.
At Ripon , it is crossed by Highway It joins the San Joaquin River at a point about 2 miles 3. The average unimpaired runoff of the Stanislaus River, as estimated at New Melones Dam, is 1,, acre feet 1. Water diversions for irrigation and regulation by reservoirs have significantly lowered the mean flow of the lower Stanislaus River, smoothed out seasonal variations, and increased the dry season baseflow.
The Stanislaus River watershed drains 1, square miles 2, km 2  and is divided into two distinct sections — the mountainous upper watershed, where the vast majority of its flow originates, and the narrow, heavily developed lower watershed where it flows across the San Joaquin Valley.
Goodwin Dam has traditionally been considered the dividing line between the upper and lower watersheds. The upper watershed comprises 90 percent of the total area and supplies a commensurate proportion of the river flow. Stretching from the foothill to alpine regions of the Sierra Nevada, it consists of rugged narrow canyons and ridges with an average local relief of 2, feet m or more from river to rim. The lower Stanislaus River watershed comprises only about one-tenth of the total area and is used mainly for agriculture 61 percent and urban development 34 percent , with minimal open space.
Most of the natural floodplain no longer exists, and about half of the former riparian habitat has been lost. The Stanislaus River is believed to have originally formed sometime during the Miocene period, about 23 million years ago, flowing down from an ancient mountain range in the current location of the Sierra Nevada that has since eroded away.
Huge lava flows moved down the ancestral canyon, filling it with volcanic rock and sediment. About 9 million years ago during the Pliocene , the most recent period of orogeny uplift occurred, tilting the predominantly granitic Sierra Nevada batholith to form a regional slope to the west. This orogeny coincided with a second period of volcanic activity, during which lava flows displaced the Stanislaus River course several times where it flows through the foothills, causing it to carve new canyons through underlying sedimentary rock.
The lava flows are today known as the Stanislaus Formation, and are most visible as the caprock layer of the distinctive "table mountains" around present day New Melones Lake. As both uplift and erosion continued, the Stanislaus River gradually carved the rugged canyons it flows through today, and contributed to the vast alluvial deposits that make up the flat floor of the Central Valley.
Most of the erosion that shaped the modern Stanislaus River basin is believed to have occurred during glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene , starting about 1 million years ago. During the ice ages California had a much wetter climate; average river flows in the past may have been as high as what is considered "flood stage" today. The climate was also cold enough to support large glaciers in the Sierra Nevada at elevations above 4, feet 1, m.
During the last glacial period the main Stanislaus glacier was up to 30 miles 48 km long; during previous ice ages it may have extended as far as 45 miles 72 km. Humans first arrived in the Sierra Nevada of present-day California more than 10, years ago. The remains of a Native American dwelling near the Stanislaus River, an oval-shaped site about 12 feet 3. Native Americans of the region did not form one large nation; rather, they lived in "tribelets" of between and people.
One group associated with the Stanislaus River was the "Walla" or "Wal-li" a native term meaning "digger" or "toward the earth" who lived in the hills between the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers. Although the Spanish Empire claimed California in the s, much of the Central Valley, then a huge expanse of swamps and rivers, remained unexplored by the Spanish for several decades thereafter. American explorers also visited the Laquisimes River country starting in the s, in search of beaver and otter pelts.
The fur trappers included renowned mountain men Jedediah Smith , William Henry Ashley , and Ewing Young , who explored the area in the period between and Smith called the river the "Appelamminy".
About a week later, after having made their way up the rugged North Fork canyon, they crossed Ebbetts Pass , becoming the first people of European descent to cross the Sierra. There was considerable native resistance to the Spanish mission program, which continued after Mexico gained independence from Spain in Most escaped Native Americans fled to the Central Valley, which was difficult for heavily armed Spanish soldiers to traverse due to its swampy terrain.
Around November , a Yokuts man named Estanislao christened after Saint Stanislaus ; his native name is believed to have been Cucunichi led a revolt at Mission San Jose and fled to the Laquisimes River country with many other natives. There he raised an army of Yokuts, Miwok and Chumash , who raided the missions and large ranchos , stealing horses and cattle and freeing Native American laborers.
The Mexican army, led by Mariano Vallejo , moved to crush the resistance, but was initially defeated by natives on the Laquisimes River, in a place believed to be near present-day Caswell Memorial State Park. After the initial defeat, Vallejo returned with a force of " soldiers, some citizens, and at least fifty mission Indian militiamen" armed with muskets and cannon, but again fought to a draw.
An unintended, but destructive consequence of European arrival was the introduction of foreign diseases. It is believed that a Hudson's Bay Company trapping expedition inadvertently introduced malaria into the Central Valley in Over the next few years successive waves of malaria swept this region, killing thousands of Native Americans in the Central Valley who had no natural immunity to European diseases.
The spread of disease was exacerbated by both the massive numbers of mosquitoes in the Central Valley wetlands, and the densely packed Native American villages. As many as 80 percent of the Plains Miwok who had survived Spanish colonization died in the consequent epidemic. During the s, many American settlers emigrated to the Central Valley of what was still Mexican-controlled California, seeking to claim the area's fertile farmland. Stanislaus City, alternately called "Mormon Ranch" or "New Hope", was established on the north bank of the river not far from its confluence with the San Joaquin.
The settlers constructed a sawmill and began to plant the area in wheat and vegetables. However the settlement did not grow significantly, ultimately dissolving the next year. The influence of American settlement ultimately led to the Bear Flag Revolt , after which California became part of the United States in Although gold mining was initially concentrated on the American and other rivers to the north, attention was drawn to the Stanislaus in August after a Native American party under Charles Weber discovered gold on the river.
The entire mining camp of Dry Diggings near today's Placerville , about men in all, packed up and headed south to the Stanislaus River, and as news spread throughout the Gold Country, hundreds more arrived. The Stanislaus was as productive a gold-bearing stream as any in California; in the early days of the Gold Rush it was known as the " Southern Mines " because it was at the time the southernmost extent of the primary gold diggings.
In William R. Ryan wrote that the mining camps along the Stanislaus River were "all of the poorest and most wretched description. Miners expected to profit within a short time and then leave these primitive conditions and return to their homes. There were numerous tents, good, bad, and indifferent, stores and gambling booths, shanties and open encampments; and miners busy everywhere.
These represent some of the earliest water rights claims along the Stanislaus River. In William Knight, a hunter and trapper, established a ferry and trading post on the Stanislaus River, to serve the thousands of miners headed to the diggings at Sonora and other mining camps. Knight had previously accompanied John C. Although Knight was killed later that year reportedly in a gunfight , the settlement had already become the principal supply point of the region, with daily stage coach service to Stockton ,  and was named Knights Ferry in his honor.
After Knight's death, Lewis Dent took over the ferry operations. In the ferry was replaced by a wooden covered bridge; within the next few years Knights Ferry also became the site of a hotel, court house, flour mill and the Tuolumne County jail. The settlement was largely destroyed during the Great Flood of , which washed away the bridge, but it and the rest of the town were soon rebuilt.
In the Tuolumne County Water Company was organized to divert water from the South Fork of the Stanislaus River; by it consisted of 80 miles km of canals serving as many as 1, miners and their claims. The Columbia and Stanislaus River Company was formed in on the main stem of the Stanislaus River, in competition to the high rates charged by Tuolumne. After the end of the Gold Rush, very few people visited the rugged Stanislaus River country above the Sierra foothills before the turn of the 20th century.
Historic records show that the majority of ranches and homesteads in the Stanislaus River area were established between the s and s by former gold seekers. Tulloch converted the old flour mill into the first hydroelectric plant on the Stanislaus River. During the late s and early s, development slowly moved higher into the Stanislaus watershed in large part due to improvement of the Sonora Pass Highway. The former wagon trail up the Stanislaus canyon had operated since as a toll road Sonora-Mono Toll Road and was heavily traveled during the s during the gold strike in Bodie.
In the following decades, travel over Sonora Pass declined heavily. Today, most of the road has been replaced by the newer alignment of Highway Tourists began to visit the high country with the advent of the automobile in the early 20th century and a number of camps and resorts were established along the river including the Douglas Resort Douglas Station in , and the Dardanelle Resort in at the confluence of Eagle Creek and the Stanislaus River.
The Dardanelle resort remained operational until This bridge was believed to be the last known timber scissors truss in the United States. Both the resort and the bridge were destroyed in the Donnell Fire.
The upper Stanislaus watershed was also used as a filming location. The Sierra Railway was a popular filming location starting around due to the "rugged countryside and quaint, ancient trains. The Stanislaus River is one of the most heavily dammed and diverted rivers in California, relative to its size.
There are a total of 28 major dams on the Stanislaus River and its tributaries with a combined storage capacity of more than 2. The river is extremely over-allocated, meaning that claims to its water far exceed supply.
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